Is addiction a disease or a disorder? (Part 1)
Did the concept of addiction always exist, or is it a new concept? Do scientists and physicians all agree that addiction is a disease? We discuss topics like these, as well as a scandal involving the primary study used to make MDMA, or ecstasy, as illegal as a drug can be and a former director of NIDA.
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1. Levy, N. (2013). Addiction is Not a Brain Disease (and it Matters). Frontiers in Psychiatry, 4, 24. http://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2013.00024
2. Courtwright (2010). The NIDA brain disease paradigm: History, resistance and spinoffs. BioSocieties. 5, 137–147. doi:10.1057/biosoc.2009.3
3. Hall W, Carter A, Forlini C. The brain disease model of addiction: is it supported by the evidence and has it delivered on its promises? Lancet Psychiatry. 2015 Jan;2(1):105-10. doi: 10.1016/S2215-0366(14)00126-6. Epub 2015 Jan 8. PubMed PMID: 26359616.
4. Wilkerson RG, Kim HK, Windsor TA, Mareiniss DP. The Opioid Epidemic in the United States. Emerg Med Clin North Am. 2016 May;34(2):e1-e23. doi: 10.1016/j.emc.2015.11.002. Epub 2016 Feb 17. Review. PubMed PMID: 27133253.
5. Hart. Viewing addiction as a brain disease promotes social injustice. Nature Human Behavior. 2017. ISSN 2397-3374 (online)
6. Hart. The Real Opioid Emergency. The New York Times. 2017. https://www.nytimes.com/2017/08/18/opinion/sunday/opioids-drugs-race-treatment.html
7. Citations in progress